top of page

Biofeedback Research

Extensive Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Bibliography

Organizations Supporting Biofeedback & Subtle Energy Medicine Research
InternationalSociety for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine
Institute of Noetic Sciences
Biofeedback Foundation of Europe
Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback

A sample of Published Research Citations and Reading List:

Biofeedback in the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain:

A Time-Series Analysis
Harden, N.R., Houle, T.T., Green, S., Remble, T.A., Weinland, S.R., Colio, S., et al. (2005).
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(1), 83-93.



Researchers at the Center for Pain Studies located in the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago/Northwestern University 
Medical School performed a study of nine individuals with Phantom Limb Pain to assess the effects of biofeedback on pain. 
The participants received biofeedback treatments over the course of four to six weeks. The results of the study showed that eight of the nine patients experienced reductions in pain that varied from 25-66 percent.

Biofeedback in the Treatment of Headache and Other Childhood Pain
Hermann, C., & Blanchard, E.B. (2002).
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 27(2), 143-162.



Much research has been conducted on the subject of the effects of biofeedback on childhood pain, mainly headaches. Empirical data was studied and reassessed by researchers at both the Central Institute of Mental Health in Mannheim, Germany and the Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders in Albany, New York. The findings have shown evidence that approximately two-thirds of the children experienced a 50% pain decrease regarding headaches. The studies concerning biofeedback on related pain such as arthritis and recurrent abdominal pain have shown to be inconclusive due to a lack of research.

Combined Heart Rate Variability and Pulse Oximetry Biofeedback for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Preliminary Findings
Giardino, N.D., Chan, L., & Borson, S. (2004).
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 


A study done was conducted at the University of Washington Medical Center to test the likelihood of an intervention that included heart rate variability biofeedback and walking with pulse oximetry feedback to improve quality of life for patients suffering from the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty participants were studied over the course of nine sessions using the Six Minute Walk Distance Test. Outcomes. The outcome showed a statistically and clinically significant improvement in walking distance and overall quality of life.

Biofeedback of R-Wave-to-Pulse Interval Normalizes Blood Pressure
Rau, H., Buhrer, M., & Weitkunat, R. (2003).
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28(1), 37-46.


Doctors in Munich, Germany explored the way biofeedback treatment affected patients with problematic blood pressures. 
Twenty-two participants received three individual sessions over the course of two weeks. Twelve of the participants had high blood pressure while the other ten experienced low pressures. The findings concluded that both high and low pressures were modified in a significant and positive way after three sessions of biofeedback.

Biofeedback Treatment for Asthma
Lehrer, P.M., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Lu, S., Scardella, A., Siddique, M., et al. (2004).
Chest Journal, 126(2), 352-361.


The research was conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School to evaluate the effectiveness of biofeedback as a complementary treatment for asthma. Ninety-four adult volunteers with asthma participated. Results suggested that the participants required fewer steroid medications and averaged a decrease in one full level of asthma severity.

Comparison of the Efficacy of Electromyography, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and Conservative Medical 
Interventions in the Treatment of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain
Flor, H., Birbaumer, N. (1993)


Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 653-658.



Researchers at the University of Tubingen in Germany compared three different types of treatments for chronic musculoskeletal pain to evaluate which would be most effective. The treatments compared were EMG biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and conservative medical treatment. At the 24-month follow-up, only the biofeedback group maintained significant reductions in pain severity.

Biofeedback for Hypertension
Health and Public Policy Committee, American College of Physicians. (1985).
Annals of Internal Medicine, 102, 709-715.


The Health and Public Policy Committee has reported that biofeedback is a constructive tool to decrease the use of medication in patients with hypertension. The research is based on 10-20 thirty-minute sessions, which have been proven to lessen blood pressure levels.

Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation in a Migraine Headache: Relationship to Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in the Middle Cerebral Artery
Vasudeva, S., Claggett, A.L., Tietjen, G.E., & McGrady, A.V. (2002).
Medical College of Ohio, Toledo.
The departments of Psychiatry and Neurology at the Medical College of Ohio tested 20 patients experiencing migraines with and without auras. After being treated with 20 sessions of biofeedback the patients experienced a reduction in pain, depression, and anxiety. Patients with and without aura experienced equally positive outcomes.

Evaluating the Efficacy of a Biofeedback Intervention to Reduce Children’s 
Wenck, L.S., Leu, P.W., D’Amato, R.C. (1996).
Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 469-473.


Over a six-week period, one hundred and fifty 7th and 8th-grade children with high anxiety were assigned to 12 sessions of biofeedback to determine if the treatments would aid in a reduction of symptoms. Students received six sessions of thermal training and six sessions of EMG training. The research showed that there was a significant decline in both state and trait anxiety.

This list is practically endless. If you ask everyone you know about their fears, you will come across a variety of fears, some of which you can’t even connect with! But that is the nature of fear. It is most often irrational and imaginary. This is different from the kind of fear you feel when faced with a truly dangerous situation. However, being in dangerous situations is certainly not an everyday occurrence.



This kind of logical thinking does not stop us from being fearful! So, how can we help ourselves when we stand face to face with our fears?

Here is a technique that can help you when you find yourself in the grip of irrational fear:


Sit or lie down comfortably.

Close your eyes and take a few deep breaths.

Feel your fear in all its intensity. Do not be afraid of feeling the fear. For instance, if you are afraid of an illness, feel the fear and all the scary details your mind projects about this illness. Don’t worry, this will not manifest the illness. Since the intention of feeling the fear is to release the energy associated with it, know that you are safe.

Now bring your awareness to your body. In which part of your body do you feel the effects of this fear? Do you feel tightness in your solar plexus or chest? Or do you feel heaviness in your head?

Once you locate the part of the body in which the fear manifests, place one of your palms on that part.

Give a shape and color to this fear. Go with the first image that comes to your mind. Do not analyze. View this image in your mind’s eye.

Now stretch your other hand, with the palm facing up. Request Archangel Michael or any other Spirit Guide you are comfortable working with to place their palm in yours.

Feel the powerful energy emanating from this fearless being. Breathe in and absorb some of his energy.
Now feel the power of your own being. You are inherently powerful. The scary voice in your head that makes you feel weak and fearful is the voice of the Ego.

With this awareness of your power, see yourself blowing the symbols Hon Sha Ze Sho Nen, Sei Hei Ki and Cho Ku Rei to the image of the fear you hold in your mind’s eye. Third level practitioners can also use the Master Symbol.
See the symbols flying towards the image of the fear and attaching themselves to it. See the fear being enveloped in Reiki and being transmuted into power and love.

Do this for as long as you feel like. If you feel weak or powerless while in the midst of the process, remind yourself that Archangel Michael (or your Spirit Guide) is with you. What is there to fear when you are in the company of such powerful beings? They are there to assist you and help you recognize your own power. So, take their help.

Once you feel peaceful, thank Reiki and Archangel Michael (or your Spirit Guide) for their assistance.



Do this process whenever you find yourself in the grip of irrational fear. It may need to be done several times, often over months, before the fear is healed fully. You may also receive intuitive messages about other steps you can take to help with the healing. Cord cutting is particularly useful to heal deep-rooted fears.


If the fear overwhelms you to such an extent that you cannot even lie still and relax to do this process, it would be wise to work with a competent Reiki Master. Once the fear is at least partially healed and you feel comfortable, you can start working independently.



Your fears can be healed. You are much more powerful than any fearful projection of your Ego. You just have forgotten how powerful you are and it is now time for you to remember it!

bottom of page